Similarly, earthworm biodiversity was assessed in six studies from Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Poland. 2006-2007 Evoluzione della socialità in gruppi primitivi di apoidei usando come modello popolazioni di vespe e api fossorie. [Correction added on 23 September 2020, after first online publication: Projekt DEAL funding statement has been added.]. Their fertilizer and pesticide demand is low compared to annual crops due to efficient nutrient recycling and the absence of major pests (Kiesel, Wagner, & Lewandowski, 2017; van der Weijde et al., 2013). The authors declare no competing interests.
Email: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail address: email@example.com, Department of Sustainable Crop Production, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza, Italy. Harvest dates can also be responsible for variation in biodiversity impact assessments. : Francesco Andrietti. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
We conclude that biodiversity can, in general, benefit from the replacement of annual crops by PRG, but this could not be proven statistically, due to data gaps in the PRG biodiversity impact assessments. . All three authors revised and approved the final version and agree to be held accountable for the article content. They are almost exclusively narrow host-plant specialists (oligoleges), some with morphological and/or physiological adaptations to efficiently handle specific floral resources [1,16]. From the selected studies, we collected data on means, standard errors/deviation, and sample size for the biodiversity attributes species richness, abundance and diversity indices.
Organism and funding: Department of Biology of the University of Milan, funded by MIUR (Italian Ministry of University and Research) (FIRBRBAU019H9A). When data of all taxonomic groups were pooled, positive RR++ were observed for the individual PRG.
A significant response (RR++ = 0.40; SE = 0.20; p = .05) was observed for abundance while richness and diversity indices showed positive, but nonsignificant, trends (Figure 1). The strength of the trends also varies between the taxonomic groups (partially significantly). Lower impacts are usually reported for lignocellulosic second‐generation than for first‐generation bioenergy crops. (c) Clade-specific diversification rates from the phylogeny-independent method-of-moments estimator with ɛ = 0.5. Duration: 9 months (2015).
Apidae: pictures (33) Family Colletidae colletid bees, plasterer bees, yellow-faced bees.
(a) Dated phylogeny of Apoidea, based on Sann et al.
Small mammal populations in PRG and annual crops were compared in only two studies, one from the United Kingdom comparing miscanthus and reed canary grass (Clapham, 2011) and the other from the United States focusing on switchgrass (Schwer, 2011). Only for switchgrass a significant positive response was observed. The random‐effects model assumes that studies are using distinct research methods and differ in their characteristics of response.
Unfortunately, it was not possible to draw more substantial conclusions due to the generally low number of studies conducting biodiversity assessments in PRG cultivations.
These beyond‐field impacts are commonly overseen in typical biodiversity assessments of PRG cultivation. Duration: 1 year (2012).
In contrast, reference crop type (e.g. Dashed lines show speciation rates. However, a few studies also indicate neutral (Bellamy et al., 2009; Clapham & Slater, 2008; Felten & Emmerling, 2011; Semere & Slater, 2007a; Stanley & Stout, 2013) or even negative effects on individual taxa (Briones, Elias, Grant, & McNamara, 2019; van der Hilst et al., 2012; Williams & Feest, 2019). Duration: 1 year (2013). P.I. The narrow host-plant preferences of the majority of melittid bees putatively put limits on their diversification relative to other bees. ... Funding. and S.B.
Duration: 3 years. In contrast to common perception, we find that the switch to pollen-feeding per se does not explain their extensive diversification. interpreted the results.
Does prey type shape diversity and density of antennal sensilla in female philanthine wasps? Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited. To answer this question, we used the most comprehensive apoid phylogeny to date , in combination with current data on species richness for all major clades (electronic supplementary material, table S1).
However, both bamm and medusa have been criticized for theoretical and statistical shortcomings [11–13], and there are conflicting views on the use of these programs for empirical data . Acknowledgements.
Organism and funding: Huinay Scientific Field Station (Chile), funded by Consejo Superior de Investigación Científica (CSIC) (España).
Overall, 25 studies published between 2001 and 2020 were considered. Jan Lask and Elena Magenau, Institute of Crop Science, University of Hohenheim, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany. Miscanthus can be harvested in autumn or spring. Robertson, Landis, Sillett, Loomis, & Rice, 2013; Semere & Slater, 2007b). Data were taken from text and tables in the main manuscript or supplementary material. It was hypothesized that PRG cultivation promotes a higher level of biodiversity, which can be quantified through the attributes ‘species richness’, ‘abundance’ and their combination in ‘diversity indices’. E.A.M. For example, the number of grassland birds has been found to be negatively correlated with field size, as dense PRG monocultures do not constitute a suitable habitat (Norment, Ardizzone, & Hartman, 1999).
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